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The CCCM Approach



 The  mission  of  CCCM  is  to  ensure  equitable  access  to  services  and  protection  for displaced  persons  living  in  communal  settings,  to  improve  their  quality  of  life  and dignity during displacement, and advocate for solutions while preparing them for life after displacement.

 The CCCM unit supports field operations with tools, guidance and capacity building to coordinate and manage displaced populations effectively.

 CCCM methodologies are applied in communal displacement settings; collective centres, camps (spontaneous and planned), camp-like settings, and communal settlements. It should be remembered that camps and communal settlements are temporary sites that should be established only as a last resort.



The Cluster Approach was adopted by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee in 2005 as a means to strengthen predictability, response capacity, coordination and accountability by strengthening partnerships in key sectors of humanitarian response, and by formalizing the lead role of particular agencies/organizations in each of these sectors.

 As the camp management and camp coordination sector is essential in almost all emergencies, a new CCCM Cluster was created. It was acknowledged that how camp management is done is crucial to the quality of life, dignity and future sustainable solutions for the IDPs and for ensuring that life in a communal  setting  constructively  prepares  individuals  for  life  after  displacement.  At  global  level, UNHCR and IOM are the CCCM co-cluster lead agencies. UNHCR leads the cluster for conflict situations and IOM for natural disasters.


 •      Global  - Standards and policy setting, building response capacity, operational support

•      Country - Development and support of national strategies and plans

•      Field / Regional - Coordination of multiple camps

•      Camp/centre - Management of a single camp/communal center


The following roles and responsibilities have been agreed upon to ensure effective response at all levels:


 Camp Coordination entails the coordination of roles and responsibilities directly relating to the development and support of national/regional plans relating to the establishment and management of communal settlements (incorporating solutions and exit strategies).   The primary objective of the CC function is to advocate for the humanitarian space necessary for the effective delivery of protection and assistance. The Camp Coordination Agency is the designated cluster lead agency for CCCM. The Camp Coordinator shall:

  1. Ensure   all   stakeholders   are   fully   consulted  and   appropriately  involved   during   the humanitarian response
  2. Provide  appropriate  support  to  national  authorities,  (including  capacity  building),  and encourage government ownership of the protection and assistance strategy for camps and communal settlements
  3. Identify  and  designate  camp  management  agencies  and  service  providers  as  well  as monitor and evaluate service provision
  4.  Provide training and guidance for all humanitarian partners
  5. Set-up and maintain assessments, monitoring and information management systems for partners to have access to operational data at camp and inter-camp levels to identify  gaps and duplication of efforts



 Camp Administration is the role of Governments and National Authorities and refers to those functions of national authorities that relate to overseeing of activities in camp-like situations. In line with the obligation and responsibility of a state to provide protection and humanitarian assistance to IDPs, Camp Administration shall:

  1.  Maintain law and order and the civilian character of  IDP settlements
  2. Prevent any eviction or any other further displacement of IDPs in the communal settings before they can regain their original homes or are offered other sustainable solutions
  3.  Facilitate access to camps by the humanitarians
  4. Designate/open  and  close  camps,  hereunder  secure  land  and  occupancy  rights  for temporary settlements
  5.  Issue documentation  (birth certificates, ID cards, travel permits etc.) to its inhabitants


 Camp Management Is the role of a Camp Management Agency, normally a national or international NGO. Camp Management encompasses those activities in one single camp that focus on co-ordination of services, establishing governance and community mobilization mechanisms, maintenance of camp infra-structure, data collection and sharing, provision of defined services and monitoring the service delivery of other providers.   The Camp Management Agency shall:

  1. Assist the camp co-ordination agency in defining the standards and indicators that are to be applied in particular responses with camp or camp-like situations
  2. Closely collaborate with the on-site authorities (Camp Administration) and liaise with them on behalf of all humanitarian actors in a camp when required
  3. Coordinate  the  response  in  one  single  camp,  specifically  collect  and  maintain  data to identify the gaps in the provision of protection and assistance and avoid the duplication of activities as well as feed information and data to the Camp Co-ordinator and to any information systems which is set-up within the cluster.


The key issues for CCCM are to:

  1. Create access and delivery of humanitarian services to communal settings
  2. Ensureeffective coordinationof humanitarian services and actors in communal settings
  3. Identify  gaps  and  needs in  terms  of  protection  and  assistance  in  and  among  communal settings
  4. Provide partners with systematic information on residents (mindful of the importance of sex- and age-disaggregated data), humanitarian services and gaps in collective settings
  5. Ensure that assistance and protection is provided uniformly in all communal settings in line with common technical standards and policy guidance
  6. Ensure systematic and meaningful participation of the displaced communities in all aspects of camp life
  7. Ensure development of an overall camp/settlement response strategy involving all partners including beneficiaries and governmental  representatives
  8. Links  assistance  provided  in  communal  settings  with  return  and  reintegration  policy  that includes durable solutions.
  9. Ensure  mainstreaming of cross-cutting issues including protection, environment, HIV/AIDS and age, gender and diversity


  1.  The overall goal of CCCM is to improve living conditions during displacement while seeking and advocating for durable solutions to end camp-life and organize closure and phase-out of camps upon IDP return.
  2. To  ensure  the  objective  of  a  timely  and  effective  response  in  camp  management  and  camp coordination, CCCM focuses on delivering strong field support, constructing and maintaining strategic partnerships, ensuring response capacities and   developing adequate field tools, standards and technical guidance



The CCCM cluster supports the field by providing the following:
  •  •      Surge capacity/deployment of CCCM experts to complex emergencies
  • •      Technical guidance and advice to CCCM clusters activated in field operations
  • •      Short term diagnostic or technical missions
  • •      Training:  A  roster  of  interagency  trainers  to  facilitate  CCCM        and  camp management trainings at regional and field level


 UNHCR and IOM are the co-chairs of the CCCM cluster.  Other partners include:

  •  •      CARE International
  • •      Danish Refugee Council (DRC)
  • •      Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
  • •      International Rescue Committee (IRC)
  • •      Lutheran World Federation (LWF)
  • •      Shelter Centre
  • •      OCHA
  • •      Catholic Relief Service (CRS)

The CCCM Cluster aims at fostering strong partnerships in all aspects of its work. Stand- by agreements with NRC, DRC and Shelter Center and several others support CM and CCCM deployments to the field and all tools are developed with partners as the driving forces.



 A CCCM Training Task Force comprising of IOM, UNHCR and NRC develops new training tools  and  supports  the  field  with  building  preparedness  response  capacity,  and hereunder develops national capacities as a part of contingency planning.

 The CCCM inter-agency training roster comprises 45 well-trained English, French and Spanish speaking facilitators ready to deliver CM and CCCM training workshops. The CCCM cluster has developed three sets of training modules:

1.   Camp Coordination

 For Camp Coordinators/Cluster Coordinators to equip them with knowledge as well as leadership and coordination skills needed for assuming the role as coordinators

 2.   CCCM / Camp Management

 For all cluster partners (incl. national authorities) working in camp-like situations to help them gain mutual understanding of roles and responsibilities and agree on effective coordination mechanisms through addressing key themes relevant to all stakeholders and   introducing them to technical issues pertaining to managing a camp

 3.   CM/CCCM Training of National Trainers

 For national staff in operations with repeated and large scale need for building national response capacity.



 Guidance and technical inputs are constantly developed, translated and disseminated to assist the field in responding to needs.

 The Camp Management Toolkit has been widely disseminated to the field in English, Arabic French and Spanish as well unofficially translated into Nepalese and Tamil. Forthcoming tools include:

 •      Camp Closure Guidelines

•      Collective Center Guidelines

 •      Best practice catalogue

 •      CCCM Needs Assessment

 •      Manual for national capacity building.

 •      Roles and Responsibility matrix with other clusters



 Guidance on CCCM issues are provided in:

  • Camp Management Toolkit, 2009
  • Collective Centre Guidelines, 2010
  • CCCM section in the IASC Gender Handbook
  • CCCM chapter in the IDP Protection Handbook