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Canadian DART Bhaktapur Assessment

Canadian DART BHAKTAPUR Assessment.


Numerous camps have been established throughout the districts varying in size from a few dozen to 1500 people. The damage is extensive with approx. 10% of buildings completely collapsed and 50-70% of buildings rendered unlivable. The community response is extensive with food distribution and preparation points established, volunteer security patrols at night, and manual labor based rubble removal. 


No medical needs were identified or observed. Many have gotten sick from unclean water but have been moved to medical facilities.

Recommendation – No requirement for medical support.


Food supplies appear to be sufficient for the short term with local donating. Both wet and dry food distribution points have been established and are distributing twice daily. Personal food is being stored and prepared within the shelters. Cooking fuel is predominantly wood from the rubble.

Recommendation – Cooking space be constructed and appropriate food storage containers be provided.


Water is available in limited quantities with both wells and piped. The water is of unknown cleanliness and is required to be boiled before consumption. No proper water storage exists on camps, often pop bottles and buckets are all that is available. Water sources can be up to a 1km walk from the camp and is being shuttled in via scooter or truck.

Recommendation – PMed assessment of water supplies be conducted ASAP. Water purification tablets be provided and recipients be instructed in their use.  Both household and collective water storage is required on site in order to allow access to water for vulnerable populations unable to retrieve water.


Tarp based shelters are predominant with cardboard, brick and mattresses used for floors. The shelters are often only top cover only or are three sided with limited protection from rains or winds.  The size of shelter and camps is massively short of the SPHERE standards with 5-10 people in a 3.5m2  shelter, with no space between shelters. Drainage ditches have been dug for water run off and should it rain many camps will become washed out. 

Recommendation – Additional shelter construction supplies be provided, specifically large tarps (10’ X10’ min) as well as structure building material (bamboo and rope).  Shelter repair materials should also be provided (duct tape, and patching material) Matting should also be provided for flooring as cardboard will not survive rain.  Drainage ditches need to be dug around shelters and proper anchoring of the tarps.  Camp managers need to be advised on camp layout.

 Hygiene & Sanitation:

In all but one camp no hand wash stations have been established, with no identifiable ablution points. Cooking takes place inside most shelters with only one or two camps having a central cooking point. Very few latrines are available and most are unisex. Those that are available require emptying at least once a day and are of very poor quality.  These latrines, if present, were often only partially sheltered with no overhead cover.  

Recommendation – Additional latrines need to be constructed, preferably with a removable waste capacity with proper shelter, distance from cooking and shelters as well as separation of genders.


The damage was extensive with roughly 10% of building completely collapsed and 50-70% of the remaining rendered inhabitable. Power lines are on the ground or low hanging impeding access.

Recommendation – Demolition of partially destroyed building is required as well as the removal of debris. Bracing of walls or buildings of questionable stability is also required.


Road access is limited but possible. Many routes have been rendered impassible as a result of rubble and low hanging wires.   A thorough route reconnaissance is required to identify in routes and vehicle limitations.

Recommendation –  a thorough route recce be completed in order to establish in and out routes as well as identify rubble removal tasks. Liaison is required to identify an agency able to address the low hanging wires.


Most camps have no lighting at night but have some barrier limiting access. Locals have established night patrols but have limited light and no uniforms. Armed Police conduct roaming patrols intermittently. No reports of crime were passed on to us.

Recommendation – Lighting and uniforms should be provided (flashlight and hard hat or vest) to volunteer security. Camp lighting should be provided and installed with a power source, solar power being the most appropriate.

Recommended Courses of Actions

COA LIGHT: A CIMIC field team with a engineer section (half construction, half field engineers) per 3 camps of 1500 pers or less, would be able to improve the shelters and camp layouts through daytime patrols to the area for an immediate impact. They would be able to dig and build improved latrines, shelters, and drainage, and install lighting as well as advise and support limited rubble removal. This COA would require the acquisition of shelter supplies, lighting, solar power or generators, and water storage and receptacles.

COA HEAVY: As per COA LIGHT plus the addition of a heavy equipment det (MPEV) to conduct rubble removal of routes and the demolition of buildings that are irreparable.